Before the use of hops, many herbs were used try try and preserve beer or perhaps even hide off notes going back millennia. Today they’re used for flavour and many herb and/or spice beers are produced including traditional styles and many new and innovative creations. Sahti from Finland, for example, dates back to the 16th century and is made with juniper berries and twigs. An even older style, that has been resurrected in recent decades is beer made with gruit, a mixture of herbs such as mugwort, horehound, ground ivy, bog myrtle, heather and may also feature the likes of ginger, caraway, star anise, cinnamon and nutmeg. A more recent tradition from America is that of pumpkin beers, which are usually richly spiced and will also feature on this page. Other herbs and spices used by brewers around the world include chilli, lemon balm, sage, rowan berries, nettles, fennel and camomile.